An Unexpected Surprise

Sala Regia, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City

I had invited a friend over for a late lunch a couple of days ago and was lying on my bed reading after I had cleared up when my phone pinged. Luckily, I looked at it straight away which I don’t always do. It was a text message from Eric, one of our choir members. Eric is an organ scholar under the aegis of our conductor who is also an organist. He has a beautiful voice which spans the tenor/contralto range and sings with the Sistine Chapel choir. Anyway, his message said that the Sistine Chapel choir were doing a recording of Palestrina’s secular music for a CD and if I got there in 10 minutes, he could get me into the Sala Regia within the Apostolic Palace, to listen.

I leaped off my bed and ran all the way to the Vatican.  There are three gates into Vatican city manned by Swiss Guards, one can’t just walk in.  Eric had to escort me and another choir member inside explaining the reason for our visit. The Apostolic Palace is where the Pope’s apartment and the Sistine Chapel are located and is patrolled by Swiss Guards. As we walked up the stairs, we could see one of them guarding the majestic door into the Sala Regia. Incidentally, Papa Francesco chose not to move into the Apostolic Palace but stays in another  Vatican guesthouse which is much more homely.  He meets visiting Heads of State in the Sala Regia and there is a door leading from it directly into the Sistine Chapel.

What an amazing room as you can see above. Beautiful marble floors and the walls are covered by huge frescoes depicting important events in the history of the church. We were able to look around us with completely unobstructed views, once the choir assembled, as there were just about ten people or less watching.

Battle of Lepanto, Giorgio Vasari

I happened to be sitting across from this fresco which mean’t nothing to me at the time but I spent a long time trying to figure it out. Back home later, I found out that it was painted by Giorgio Vasari and depicts the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 in which the Christian naval powers of Spain, Venice, and the Papacy, defeated the fleet of the Ottoman Empire. It was a turning point in the history of Europe as it put a halt to the expansion of the Ottoman empire in the Mediterranean. The fresco shows the two fleets of rowing boats facing each other, the Ottoman fleet is on the right. The three figures in the bottom left represent Venice, the Church in the middle and Spain on the right. The map in the middle represents the gulf of Patras in Greece where the battle was fought. At the bottom right are allegorical figures representing fear, weakness and death. Notice the angels under the |Christian fleet bearing gold crowns while the angels under the Ottoman fleet are emptying a vessel of nasty looking creatures. I wish I had known all of this when I was actually looking at the fresco.

Back to the choir, the adult component of the choir comprises only about 20 people, obviously all with beautiful voices spanning soprano to bass. Eric is fourth on the left wearing a checked shirt. The choir also has about 30 young boys who weren’t involved in the recording. The man in the white shirt was the producer and he listened very carefully, picking out passages that he was not happy with and discussing these with the conductor and choir so that they could be repeated.  We had to sit at the back of the room so as no noise disturbed the recording. The sound engineer seemed to have everything under control and was quite laid back during the proceedings but obviously could read music as he was looking at the score carefully.

Sala Ducale

There were a number of pauses so that the choir could walk around as well as rest their voices. This enabled those of us watching, to go around looking at things more closely and to take photos. Apart from the two doors to the Sistine chapel, the door behind the choir leads to the Capella Paulina which is the Pope’s private chapel and contains some magnificient pieces by Michaelangelo. We weren’t able to go into it nor into the Sistine Chapel but we were able to go into the Sala Ducale which consists of a long room also used for meetings of the Pope with foreign dignitaries and other related functions. It used to be two rooms but Bernini joined them together by means of a large archway decorated with angels holding up swathes of fabric. The vaulted ceilings are spectacular, decorated with grotesques which became popular during the Renaissance after having been discovered in the Domus Aurea, the house of Nero in the 2nd century.

I felt very lucky to have been handed this ‘gift’ as few people get to enter the Apostolic Palace. I’m glad that I have the opportunity to share the experience. Thank you Eric!

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A Trip to Emilia-Romagna

Agazzano village, Emilia-Romagna

First of all thank you to the readers who wrote me messages of encouragement about my blog. It’s nice to know that people enjoy it.  I will continue until there’s nothing more to write about.

I have been back in Rome for a couple of weeks and it’s been a busy time since I got back.  Loris’ family had a re-union at an uncle’s house in the countryside. It was near a small village called Agassano just outside Piacenza in Emilia-Romagna. The house is the gate lodge of a medieval castle.  Beautiful countryside all around with fields of wheat, tomatoes, hay and red poppies lining the roadsides. We had lunch in the garden, feasting on barbecued meats, cheeses and various local produce. Emilia-Romagna isn’t called the breadbasket of Italy for nothing!

Since I was in northern Italy, I took the opportunity to visit Bologna which I had never visited despite having passed through its outskirts many times. I was very lucky to be introduced to Lorenza and Gianni through friends. They lived in Canada for many years where Gianni was a wine maker. Now having returned to Italy, he gives cooking classes at their apartment which is situated in a palazzo, as well as taking small groups on walking holidays. They invited me to their place for a dinner of homemade tortellini the day I arrived. All made from scratch and absolutely delicious.

Bologna’s Porticoes

Bologna is a small city with a walled historic centre. It is beautiful and very quaint. As you can see in the photo, the roofs have red tiles giving the city a reddish glow and the nickname ‘la rossa’, the red one. Almost all of the buildings in the historic centre date back to medieval times and have porticoes spanning the pavement so that one is protected from the sun in the summer and the rain in the winter. Bologna boasts the oldest university in Italy, or possibly in Europe, dating back to 1088 so it is also sometimes referred to as ‘la dotta’, the learned one. You see lots of students and young people on the streets giving the city a vibrant energy.

One morning, Gianni took me on a bike ride. Bologna is perfect fot biking as it is flat for the most part, with designated bike lanes. It is also great to walk around in, as parts of the historic centre are closed to traffic. We biked outside the walled historic centre to the bottom of a small hill on the outskirts of the city. At the top of the hill is a church dedicated to the Madonna di San Luca. An icon of the Virgin was supposedly brought to Bologna in the 12th century by a Byzantine pilgrim from the church of Santa Sofia in Constantinople (Istanbul).  A covered arcade of 3.8 km goes up the hill to the church so there is plenty of time for prayer and reflection before you arrive! I didn’t take a picture of the icon as there were people solemnly praying in front of it and it seemed disrespectful.  After the walk up and down as well as the bike ride there and back, I was ready to stroll around with Lorenza and sample more of Bologna’s culinary delicacies for lunch. Another nickname for Bologna is ‘la grassa’, the fat one. It’s reputation for good food lived up to my expectations and I didn’t see a single fat person perhaps because it is an easy city to walk or bike everywhere.

 

 

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Blogger’s Block

I have been in Toronto for almost a month now and although there’s been no shortage of stuff to write about, I have lost the urge somehow. When I started this blog in 2012, I had just moved to Rome and it was a way of allowing my family and friends to get a glimpse of my life there. I started it with some trepidation thinking that I would have nothing more to say after a month or so. Six years later, I’m still here! I’m not sure how many people read my posts as I don’t bother to check the statistics. However, I get messages from a couple of readers so I know that there are, hopefully, at least half a dozen and maybe they will tell me if I should continue………

Rear View of the Toronto Art Gallery

So Toronto was awfully cold when I arrived with ice on the ground and freezing rain. The trees were barren and bleak as you can see in the photo. However, spring has come and the trees have burst into leaf, cherry blossoms and magnolias in flower. Tulips and daffodils in full flower and there’s a wonderful fragrance of earth and fresh growth in the air. Not warm enough to sit out but perhaps soon. In any case, I will be back in Rome in a couple of days and it will definitely be warm enough to sit out there.

Itchiku Kobota: Symphony of Light

I saw two interesting exhibitions in the last couple of weeks, both by Japanese artists but at opposite ends of the spectrum. The first was an exhibition of silk kimonos at the Textile Museum made by Itchiku Kubota who was born in 1917 and was productive until he died in 2003. His kimonos are works of art rather than to be worn and he revived a decorative technique called tsujigahana, a combination of ink drawing and resist dyeing. The photo shows a series of kimonos depicting the seasons. The painstaking work involved was unbelievable.

Yayoi Kusama

The other exhibition at the Art Gallery of Ontario was by Yayoi Kusama a contemporary artist now close to 80 years and still creating art. The exhibition was entitled ‘Infinity Rooms’ and had a series of rooms in which images were reflected in mirrors to infinity. Hard to describe but you step into a tiny dark room, about the size of a small bathroom but the feeling is of infinite space. I had seen one of these in an exhibition in Rome a couple of years ago and I took a photo. It was featured in the exhibition here but photos of this piece were not permitted here for some reason so I’m posting the one I took in Rome so you can see it. It depicts pumpkins covered in black polka dots. Kusama has an obsession with polka dots and they feature in many of her works. In the last couple of years Marc Jacobs used her polka dot designs for Louis Vuitton bags so if you see someone carrying a polka dot bag, remember Yayoi Kusama.

One room really gave the sense of being in infinite space. There seemed to be just twinkling lights in a vast space even though you were standing in a room the size of a walk-in closet. 

The exhibition has been extremely popular and tickets were sold out weeks ago. The viewing times have been extended and now there are only a certain number of tickets given out on the day. I joined the queue at 8 am last week and was lucky to get a ticket by 10 am. I’m not quite sure why the exhibition has been more popular than any previous show but the AGO must be absolutely delighted.

 

 

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An Early Easter

Easter is upon us and though I know that it is very early this year, the timing seems out of joint since it is not as warm as usual in Rome for this time of year. Normally, cherry blossoms are in flower by now but not this year.

It rained practically every day until about two weeks ago and the banks along parts of the Tiber River are flooded.  A good reminder of how the neighbourhoods along the Tiber would get flooded on a regular basis, until the embankments were built, starting in 1876.

Hammer and Sickle, Andy Warhol, 1977.
Pietro Galli, Giove, 1838.

So, with the feeling that somehow the time and weather are not what they should be, I was delighted to come upon the caption ‘Time is out of Joint’ on the steps of the Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea which has recently undergone a massive renovation and restructuring.  This was the title of a major exhibition which was put on immediately after the renovation and which has just ended.  Where previously, the collection was displayed in chronological fashion, it was grouped according to theme and contrast to create a dialogue between past and present.  By not displaying the works through the concept of historical time nor even by groupings of sculptures and so on, one did see them in a different way. The gallery has a new Director, a Direttrice, Christiana Collu who is relatively young. Her idea for the exhibition was that time needs to be realigned by weaving new, unexpected relationships that shun the orthodox and codified laws of chronology.

With the recent election in Italy, her concept will be transferred into a different arena.  No party got enough votes to form a clear majority which has been more or less the norm in Italy for decades.  The two parties with the highest number of votes were the extreme right Lega and the populist party the M5S (Movimento Cinque Stelle). Two more unlikely bedfellows would be hard to imagine. The geographical division of votes was remarkable with the Lega winning a majority in the upper half of Italy and the M5S in the lower half.

Hic Sunt Leones
Davide Rivalta, 2017

The leader of M5S, Luigi di Maio is only 32, did not graduate from University, and has not had a defined career so far. His ability to hold his own with other European prime ministers like Angela Merkel and Emmanuel Macron is debatable. The leader of Lega, Matteo Salvini, is said to have won a majority through internet targeting using anti-immigration as a key stance. Somehow, I can’t quite get my mind around an unexpected relationship between these two groups and in any case, the M5S have always said that they won’t be part of a coalition so I think a new election might be in the works. This is the second election since I’ve been here and there were great hopes of change after the last in 2014 but a coalition was formed and no agreement on anything could be achieved.

Here in Rome, politicians have risen and fallen for 2,000 years and discussions and arguments abound, but when it comes to festivals like Easter, food and wine take precedence. The shops and bakeries are filled with Easter pastries like colomba and special breads like casiatello which one only gets at Easter. My neighbours have very kindly invited me for lunch on Easter Sunday so I’m assured of good, home-cooked Roman food. On that note, Buona Pasqua to all my readers.

 

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Snow in Rome

I woke up this morning with a sense of disorientation when I saw the trees outside my window covered with snow. For a few seconds, I thought I was back in Toronto. A good few inches of snow fell during the night bringing the city to a halt. Schools in several neighbourhoods are closed today and tomorrow, buses and trains are not operating on a normal schedule, and many of the major tourist sites like the Colosseum and the Foro Romano are closed. It’s nothing from a Canadian perspective but the city isn’t prepared for snow at all. Furthermore, hardly anyone (including myself!) has appropriate footwear so it actually is quite treacherous out there with the cobblestones covered in ice and snow. I hear that it is 12C in Toronto compared to -5C here. I never thought I would see the day when winter temperatures in Rome would be lower than in Toronto! Hard to believe that Mimosa and other flowers were in bloom in the middle of January. The reason for this is that a wind called the buran has blown down from Siberia bringing snow and blizzards. We’re lucky in Rome compared to northern Italy where it has been snowing much more heavily.

Wish You Were Here Album Cover

Some of you have sent me messages wondering why I haven’t posted anything for so long, my apologies. The truth is that I’ve never been as busy in Rome as I am now. I agreed to teach an English course to a small group of priests at the Polish Pontifical Institute which requires hours of preparation. Luckily, my sister Florinda has been a teacher of English as a second language for her whole career and has provided me with resources and advice. I find it very interesting and have learned a lot myself. My students are relatively young, intelligent and eager to learn so it’s a pleasure teaching them.

Despite my busy schedule, I have been able to squeeze in an outing or two. Last Saturday, a friend wanted to see an interactive Pink Floyd exhibition. Interactive in the sense that you were provided with earphones and could hear the related music and interviews as you viewed the exhibits. I always thought their album covers were amazing and one of the most interesting things about the exhibition was seeing how the company Hipgnosis under the direction of Storm Thorgerson did the designs for these as well as the stage sets.The theme of the ‘Wish You Were Here’ lyrics is absence. The cover shows a record salesman who is faceless and therefore absent and is a reference to the faceless bowler hatted man done by the surrealist artist Rene Magritte who himself often wore a bowler hat. There was a photo of Magritte holding up his painting. A jewel to behold.

I was taken by one large exhibit based on a geometric design by a 1960s artist, Bridget Riley. There is some esoteric connection between Alice in Wonderland and one or two of Pink Floyd’s albums. Apparently the music of The Dark Side of the Moon syncs with the Alice in Wonderland Movie. I wouldn’t know but I liked the exhibit which showed a black and white video of Alice running through empty corridors surrounded by Bridget Riley’s psychedelic design. It personifies my life in the last couple of weeks where I seem to be running through endless corridors of grammar searching for how to present it. My sister must be laughing!

 

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Picasso in Rome

Picasso’s Stage Curtain for Parade

After the brutal weather in Toronto, I was quite glad to return to Rome where it feels like spring.

One of my favourite things in January is seeing this Mimosa tree in full bloom on my way to the market. I know I’ve posted a picture of it previously but those of you confined to colder climes might feel cheered by the sight.

There are always lots of art exhibitions in Rome. One of them, based on Picasso’s time in Rome, has been on display for a couple of months and since it was due to close last weekend, I rushed off to see it a couple of days after I arrived.

Picasso came to Rome in 1917 with Jean Cocteau who persuaded him to design the set costumes and stage curtain of the ballet Parade performed by the Ballet Russes under the direction of Sergei Diaghilev. Picasso was 36 at the time and was well into his cubist phase but was eager to try something else. This is his version of the costume of a Chinese conjuror in Parade. Funky!
The stage curtain that he painted is his largest work. You can’t get a concept of the size of the curtain from the picture above as there was no space to stand back and get a better perspective but it was gigantic measuring 16.5 x 10.5 metres (52′ x 34′). So large in fact that it couldn’t be displayed in the Scuderie del Quirinale where the exhibition was held but had to be installed in the grand hall of the Palazzo Barberini under the tall arched ceilings filled with frescoes by Pietro Cortona depicting the Triumph of Divine Providence. An unusual and wonderful juxtaposition. The curtain shows the performers sitting having a meal backstage before the curtain rises and represents various people in the cast.

Divine Providence it was indeed for Picasso as it was in Rome that he met his first wife Olga Khochlova, who was a dancer in the ballet. Eric Satie wrote the music for Parade and Cocteau, Satie, Stravinsky, Picasso and Diaghilev formed a little group collaborating on other projects in a move to create a synthesis between painting, music and literature. Perhaps also as a buffer against the war since Rome was relatively peaceful with most of the action occurring on the Austro-Hungarian border. The group of artists and composers wrote several letters and notes to each other, several of which were on display. I was taken by Picasso’s notepaper some of which he had painted with a border. I was also struck by Satie’s beautiful handwriting and I loved his signature. Unfortunately, I couldn’t take any good photos as these exhibits were under protective lighting and of course no flash was allowed. Picasso was strongly influenced by his short stay in Rome and experimented with different styles, producing a large number of non-cubist works, some even surrealistic.

The Scuderie del Quirinale used to be the horse stables of the Quirinale Palace where the President of Italy now resides. On the way to the bathroom, I came across this wonderful view of the Palazzo and its attached Piazza. One sometimes gets the best view from an unexpected vantage point.

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Hello 2018

Jeanelle Modelling the New Canadian Mascara. Photo by Jocelyn Bertheau

A very happy New Year to all my readers.

Brutally cold temperatures in Toronto and other parts of Ontario dampened New Year’s Eve celebrations. The annual outdoor party outside City Hall in Toronto was condensed  and actually cancelled in Ottawa on account of the cold. Temperatures of -30C are not conducive to wandering about in the streets.

Photo: Jeanette Bertheau

However, my hardier friends are out in the countryside cross-country skiing and enjoying the winter wonderland scenery. When you live in Ontario, you have to take the weather in your stride or you could be trapped in the house for weeks. Having said that, I’m not striding about much in this weather and I’m glad to be returning to Rome for the rest of the winter.

It’s hard to predict what 2018 will bring, given the depths we sank to in 2017 with heads of countries hurling insults against each other such as ‘You’re fat’ and ‘You’re old’. It was hard to believe that grown men could behave like this, never mind heads of state. Still, there were some glimmers of positivity.  The MeToo  movement empowered women to speak out against sexual exploitation.  The difficulties of Brexit has slowed down other European populist movements from heading in the same direction. The Paradise Papers publicized how the rich avoid paying taxes. Small things in these turbulent times but we can only hope that 2018 will continue with small battles won if not the big ones.

 

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Symbol of Christmas

    Queen’s Park, Toronto

The year seems to be ending with remarkable similarity to how it started. In January, I  unexpectedly spent a night in Philadelphia on my way from Toronto to Rome.  I ended up enjoying this diversion as  I got an opportunity to visit the Philadelphia Art Museum.  Two days ago, while flying back to Toronto from Rome, I again unexpectedly had to stay overnight in London as I missed my connection to Toronto on account of bad weather.

With a day before the next flight to Toronto, I went to the Victoria and Albert Museum in South Kensington where there was a very interesting exhibition on opera entitled ‘Opera: Passion, Power and Politics’.  What was interesting about the exhibition was that you were provided with a headset at the start and could hear arias from the specific opera that you were reading about as you walked around. This was without pressing any buttons and the music just changed by itself depending on what you were looking at. I still don’t know how this was technically achieved and it was remarkable.On the way to the Tube Station, I saw the beautiful Christmas tree outside the Natural History Museum surrounded by a skating rink which made me think about this universal symbol of Christmas.

Rome has a couple of locations featuring Christmas trees, one of them being in front of St. Peter’s Basilica which you can see in my previous post. The other one is on Piazza Venezia which got a lot of criticism last year for being small and  unimposing such that the City ended up trying to make it look more impressive by placing a huge star on top.  This year, a taller one was installed but lo and behold, a few days later it looked dried up so that people began referring to it as ‘spelacchio’ which means mangy or bald and remarking that it looked like a toilet brush. It has turned into a symbol of the decline of the city which many attribute to the alleged ineptitude of the Mayor Virginia Raggi of the Cinque Stellae populist party. She has publicly declared that she is not standing again after the end of her term. After the tree being an object of shame for two years in a row and written about in international newspapers, the new Mayor will feel obligated to make a careful choice.

Back in Toronto, we have our own beautiful permanent Christmas tree outside the Legislative Building at Queen’s Park. I passed by it this evening and it looked festive and majestic covered in lights. Three Christmas trees in three countries in a week.  I’m beginning to feel like a Christmas tree judge!

Anyhow, a very happy Christmas to all my readers. This is such a special time for those of us who have families and loved ones to spend it with but let us also remember that Christmas can be a difficult time for those who are alone, or ill or in places of conflict and spare a thought or better yet a helping hand if we come across someone in that situation.

 

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Christmas Season Starts in Rome

Christmas Tree, Piazza San Pietro

December 8th, the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, is the official start of the Christmas season in Rome. It is a holiday and and on this day, all the public Christmas trees are illuminated and the Christmas lights on Via del Corso are switched on.

Last week there was a flurry of activity in preparation for the big day and people had to work at night to get the lights up on Via del Corso so as not to disrupt traffic during the day. The red fir tree in St. Peter’s square is easily the largest in the city at 28 metres (92 feet) tall. This year, it was a donation from Poland though I’m not sure whether it actually came from Poland and how it got here. Unlike previous years, it was decorated rather than just illuminated. Children undergoing cancer treatments in various Italian hospitals made the decorations which were carefully put up over several days with the help of a crane.

December 8th is also our neighbourhood feast day. The church is two doors down from me and the morning started with bells pealing and after Mass, a brass band playing on the terrace. In the afternoon, the statue of the virgin in the church was carried down the hill in a procession that included the brass band and the choir. I was standing on the sidewalk watching when I saw my neighbours, Anna and Gino who invited me to join them which I did. We made our way down the tiniest cobbled streets in the neighbourhood, with the band playing and hymns being sung, stopping in various places for prayers.

I’m sure the young lads from the bar on our street, who were carrying the Virgin were delighted with the praying as they could put her down. It was quite a load with the statue on a platform of flowers together with lights and likely a battery to operate them. We had to have a police escort at one point, since we actually proceeded down Via Gregorio VII, a very busy main road. All the traffic and buses had to stop and wait until the procession turned around the corner and went up the hill. This can’t have gone down well with the people trying to get to their destinations but as Gino informed me, the procession has been taking place since before there were buses and so much traffic on that street. He was born in the neighbourhood and is now in his 70s. It was fascinating to hear what it was like when he was young.

Anyhow, we made our way back to the church where the Virgin was returned to her place and a Mass was celebrated with organ and choir. Immediately after there was a firework display with a view of the dome of St. Peter’s from the church terrace, very beautiful.  Finally there were refreshments in the church hall which is around the corner in a spacious garden. I often walk on the other side of the garden wall and always wondered what was behind it so I was pleased to finally find out. I’m not particularly religious but I can see how the church cements the social structure of villages and small communities. A blessing or a curse depending on your viewpoint and whether or not you fit within the structure.

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Pain in Paradise

Although I live in a central part of the city here in Rome, my apartment is in a quiet neighbourhood with lots of trees. It is on top of a small hill and I always felt like I was in a little village. Today my haven has suffered a terrible blow.

I usually wake up in the morning to the sound of birds twittering or in warmer months, to parrots squawking. This morning I was awakened by the sound of chain saws. The house next door to me which was almost invisible behind a screen of trees was suddenly brutally visible. Completely gone are a large lemon tree, a pomegranate tree, a large Nespole tree, several evergreens and a slew of shrubs. The house has been largely uninhabited since I came here and I guess it must have been finally sold. I’m afraid that they’re going to convert the garden into a parking area. I can’t stop humming the line from Joni Mitchell’s song ‘they paved paradise and put up a parking lot’.

Image Origin: Getty Images

It feels like every week, there is something new to be aghast about. I was in Goa when the news of the Paradise papers emerged. The extent of the money hidden by the wealthy behind various offshore tax avoidance schemes is truly horrifying. I expected that there would be an uproar about it but not much of a peep in any country as I guess it’s all legal so little can be done. Meanwhile, the EU is on the edge of a turmoil. Nobody knows what’s going to happen now that Angela Merkel is unable to form a majority coalition. Here in Italy, Silvio Berlusconi forged a winning coalition of his centre right and two far right parties in regional elections in Sicily. The 81-year old who is so ‘remade’ that he looks half that age has made a come back despite recent cardiac surgery, tax fraud and sex scandals. He is banned from running for office but has appealed to the European court of human rights and being a billionaire has been able to hire top lawyers. If this happens, there is a chance that he could lead the country again in the next election which is hard to even imagine.

Gian Lorenzo Bernini: Detail from ‘The Abduction of Proserpina’

Anyhow, one has to find beautiful things to cheer one up and there is no shortage of beauty in Rome. There are a number of exhibitions and I went to one of the work of Bernini at the Villa Borghese last week. He truly was an incredible sculptor and his figures look like they’re carved out of some soft material rather than marble. Tomorrow, I’m going to an exhibition of Monet’s work on a guided tour in Italian. I don’t care for guided tours of paintings but a friend has persuaded me to join her and it will be good for my Italian. Thank goodness at least works of art have not been totally destroyed. I wish it was the same for our environment.

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